Dere interest is in a determinate balance of-a forces, which-a dey obtain precisely by using-a dere resources to reinforce one party or another in turn from-a da varied political checkerboard (with-a de exception, needless to say, only of-a de enemy party, whose reinforcement…

It seems to me dat-a da reply must be in-a da negative. Da great industrialists utilise all-a de existing parties turn by turn, but-a dey no have dere own party. Dis no mean-a dat-a dey are in any way "agnostic" or "apolitical".

It is den technically a policing organism, and its-a name of-a "political party" is simply a metaphor of-a da mythological character. [1933] Capisce? Da problem arises of-a whether-a da great industrialists have a permanent political party of-a dere own.

When-a da party is progressive it functions "democratically" (democratic centralism); when-a da party is regressive it functions "bureaucratically" (bureaucratic centralism). Da party in-a dis second case is da simple, unthinking executor.

It is regressive when it tends to hold back-a da vital forces of-a history and to maintain a legality which has been superseded, which is anti-historical, which has become extrinsic. Besides, da way in which-a da party functions provides discriminating criteria.

Da policing function of-a da party can hence be either progressive or regressive. It is progressive when it tends to keep-a da dispossessed reactionary forces within-a da bounds of-a legality, and to raise da backward masses to da level of-a da new legality.

In fact, a law finds a lawbreaker: 1. among-a da reactionary social elements whom it has dispossessed; 2. among-a da progressive elements whom it holds back; 3. among-a doze elements which have not yet reached-a da level of-a civilisation which it can be seen as representing.

Does da given party carry out its-a policing function in order to conserve an outward, extrinsic order which is da fetter on-a da vital forces of-a history; or does it carry it out in-a da sense of-a tending to raise da people to a new level of-a civilisation expressed…

Is its-a purpose one of-a repression or of-a dissemination; in other words, does it have a reactionary or a progressive character?

If-a dis were conclusively demonstrated, da problem would have to be posed in other terms; it would have to bear, in other words, on-a da means and-a da procedures by which such a function is carried out.

It is difficult to deny-a dat all political parties (those of-a subordinate as well as ruling groups) also carry out a policing function— dat is to say, da function of-a safeguarding a certain political and legal order.

It is unnecessary to add-a dat it is essential for parties to avoid even-a da "justified" appearance of-a playing somebody else's game, especially if-a da somebody is da foreign State. But nobody can prevent speculations from being made. Eyyy.

Anyone who reinforces conceit, or prefers it to concrete facts, is certainly not be to taken seriously.

Given-a dat whatever one does one is always playing somebody's game, de important thing is to seek in every way to play one's own game with success—in other words, to win decisively. At all events, party conceit is to be despised, and replaced by concrete facts.

Similarly, in-a de events of-a June 1914 some see de intervention of-a de Austrian General Staff with a view to da coming war. As can be seen, da list of-a examples is da long one, and it is essential to have clear ideas on-a da subject.

…de intervention of-a Bismarck, who with his eyes on-a da war with France and-a da danger of-a da Franco-Italian alliance thought to weaken Italy (Italia) through internal conflict.

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…was really a question of-a da "policy", a permanent line of-a action, or not rather a stratagem of-a da moment to weaken Austria before 1859 and 1866. Similarly, in-a da Mazzinian movements of-a de early eighteen-seventies (the Barsanti affair, for instance) one can discern-a…

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In-a da history of-a da so-called principle of-a nationality, foreign interventions in favour of-a national parties which trouble de internal order of-a enemy States are innumerable; so much so dat when one speaks, for example, of-a Cavour's "Eastern" policy, one wonders if it…

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